According to Article 12 of the Indian Constitution, State means the government and Parliament of India, the government and Legislature of a State, Local authorities and other authorities within the territory of India, or under the control of the Government of India. The most significant expression used in Article 12 is "Other authority". This expression is not defined in the constitution. It is the supreme court, as the apex court, defined this term.

Meaning of authorities -  

        According to Webster's Dictionary "Authority" means a person or body exercising power to command. In the context of Article 12, the word "authority" means the Power to make laws,  orders, regulations, bye-laws,  notification etc.  which have the force of law and power to enforce those laws.

Other Authorities-

           In Article 12 expression "other authorities" is used after mentioning a few of them, such as the Government, Parliament of India, the Government and Legislature of each of the States and all local authorities.

The University of Madras vs Shantabai  AIR 1954 Mad 67


           In this case, the Madras High Court held that other authorities could only indicate authorities of a like nature,  for example,  ejusdem generis so construed, it could only mean authorities exercising governmental or sovereign Functions. It cannot include persons, natural or juristic, such as a University unless it is maintained by the State. But in Ujjammbai vs. State of U.P  the court rejected this restrictive to interpretation of the expression 'other authorities' given by the Madras High Court and held that the ejusdem generis rule could not be restored to in interpreting this expression.
       In article 12 the body specifically named are the Government of the Union and the States, the legislature of the Union and the States and local authorities. There is no common genus running through these named bodies nor can these bodies so placed in one single category on any rational basis.

Rajasthan State Electricity Board vs. Mohanlal (AIR  1967 SC 1857) 


               In this case, Supreme Court held that the expression "other authorities" is wide enough to include all authorities created by the constitution or statute on whom powers are conferred by law. It is not necessary that the statutory authority should be engaged in performing governmental or sovereign function. On this interpretation the expression 'other authorities' will include Rajasthan Electricity Board, Cochin devasom board, co-operative society which have power to make bye-laws under Corporation societies act 1911.

See also...

Provisions for Minorities In Indian Constitution

Provisions relating to Indian Citizenship under the Constitution of India

Freedom of Movement and Resident - Article 19(1)(d) and (e)


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