A)Introduction -
          Fundamental duties were not exist in written form , at the comencement of the constitution.  It is inserted by 42nd constitutional amendment to make special provision laying down fundamental duties for citizens of India. This duties specified under new Article 51-A introduced in the constitution by above mentioned amendment.

B)Need of fundamental duties -

            As fundamental rights are necessary for individual to develop their personality. It is also necessary that they should discharge their obligations towards their fellow-citizens and the motherland. Here only fundamental rights would not make them good citizens. Normally right imply also duties . They are two sides of the coin. But very few people realise thisand therefore, it has became necessary to make people aware about their duties towards motherland and fellow citizens.

C) Important Fundamental Duties -

           Art.51-A lays down that- "it shall be the duty of every citizen of India".

a) To abide by the constitution and  respect its ideals and institutions the  national flag and national anthem .

b)to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.

c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.

d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.

e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic, and regional or sectional diversities , to renounce the practices derogatory of the dignity of women.

f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.

g) to protect and improve the national environment including forest, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living animal.

h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.

I) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence.

j) to strive towards excellence in all sphere of individual and collective activity, so that the nation constantly rise to higher levels of endeavour ans achievement.

D) Nature of Fundamental duties -

            The fundamental duties ,which have been incorporated in the constitution by the 42nd constitutional amendment.  Based upon the recommendations of the Swaran Singh Committee. In this connection it may be pointed out that a similar provisions is made in the universal declaration of human rights and similar provisions are made in the constitution of Japan, China USSR also.

\       Though the fundamental duties incorporated in the constitution of India, there is provision for their enforcement. Though the swaran Singh committee had suggested providing for punishment for breach of fundamental duties,  actually no provision has been made for the same while incorporating these duties in the constitution.


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