Introduction - 

      Islam is a religion. Islam means peace or submission to God's will. Muslim is a person who is a follower of the religion of Islam. Muslim Law is based on four Major Sources. Which are -  The Quran, Sunna, Ijmaa, Qiyas

Sources of Muslim law -

There are four sources of Muslim law which are as follows -
1) The Quran
2) Sunna
3) Ijmaa
4) Qiyas

1) The Quaran - 

     The Quran is the holy book of Islam. It contains 6000 versus revealed to the Prophet by the Angel Gabriel as the message of God. Almost 80 verses of the Quran deal with legal matters such as inheritance, guardianship. Marriage, divorce etc. Since the Quran represents the voice of God it's authority is Paramount. The standard authoritative version of the Quran was prepared after the death of Prophet, during the time of third Caliph and all the other versions were destroyed. The script who had been employed by Prophet himself during the prophets lifetime assisted III Caliph in preparing the standard text.

2) Sunna - 

      Sunnah is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community. Sunna consists of the precedents or usages of the Prophet. They are divinely inspired utterances of the Prophet. They deal more with the principles of the Islamic religion rather than with the positive law.The Sunna being divinely inspired ranks equal to the Quran.

3) Ijmaa - 

       Ijma is the consensus of the jurists. There is Hadia of the Prophet to the effect "God will not allow. His chosen people to agree or an error" The efficacy of  Ijmaa is based upon this text. Ijma has validity so long as it is not opposite to the Quran or to the Sunna

4) Qiyas - 

      It is the analogical deduction from a comparison of the other three sources. It is the analogical deduction from a comparison of the other three sources

Conclusion - The Quran, Sunna, Ijma, and Qiyas these are four major Sources of Muslim law. The Shias, one of the Sects of Islam do not accept Qaiyas as a source of Muslim Law.   

See also 

Sources of Hindu Law 

Can a Female be a Coparcener and Karta ?


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