Introduction: 

                World War I (1919) and World War II (1939) both the world wars inspired the awakening to the value of human life. The United Nations charter is pervaded by the deep attachment of Human Rights. The aim of the charger is to save the humanity from the scourge of War and the complete development of human personality, his liberties, and scope for the same.

What are Human Rights: 

             Human Rights are all those rights which are inherent in our very nature and without which we cannot live a human beings. These are inalienable rights which belong equally to all the members of the human family and, as such should be protected by the rule of law.

United Nations Charter and Human Rights 

        In the Preamble of the United Nations Charter, it is declared that ---

       WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, AND FOR THESE ENDS to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbors, and to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and to ensure by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples, HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.


The basic purposes of the United Nations  

1) To maintain International peace and security, and to that a and to take effective measures for prevention and removal of the threats to the peace, and for the suppression of act and aggression or in other breaches of the peace and to bring about peaceful means and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes and situations which might lead to a breach of the peace.

2) To  develop friendly relations among Nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples

3) To achieve International Corporation in solving International problems of an economic social cultural or humanitarian character and in promoting and encouraging without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.

4) To be a Centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of this common ends


See in details...What are Basic Purpose and Principles of United Nations?


        
The United Nations shall promote Universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without discrimination on the basis of race, Sex, language or religion.

          Article 62 of the Charter authorizes the Economic and Social Council, to make recommendations for the purpose of promoting respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms. Article 68 direct the Economic and Social Council to establish the commission in economic and social fields and for the promotion of human rights and such other Commission as may be required for the performance of its functions.


        General assembly of the United Nations Organisation on 12th February 1946 approved the commission on human rights appointed by the Economic and Social Council. The commission was empowered of 18 members who were appointed by ECOSOC i.e Economic and Social Council.

         The commission was empowered to carry out studies, make a recommendation and drafts new international treaties. The commission began its work in January 1947 under the chairmanship of Roosevelt. The drafting committee and its first session prepared a preliminary draft of an international bill of Human Rights, which was considered by the commission on human rights at its second session held from 2 December to 17 December 1947. The commission discussed the report of the drafting committee in the third session held in June 1948 and finally adopted a draft of declaration for submission to the economic and social council.

         The council adopted a resolution and submitted it before the general assembly. The general assembly adopted it on 10th December 1948, through a resolution known as "Universal Declaration of Human rights"


Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948

See....Civil and Political Rights under Article 1 to Article 21

See.... Economic, Social and Cultural Rights under Article 22 to Article 30


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