The League was established under the Treaty of Versailles concluded between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany on 28 June 1919. The main objects of the league of nations were to promote international cooperation and to achieve International peace and security, settle disputes amicably without resort to war, reduction of national armaments to the lowest point consistent with national safety. Maintain International Relations between members States, To preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League of Nations etc. But there were some defects and weaknesses of the league some of them are as follows -

The main defects and weaknesses of the league were as follows -

1) One of the main defects of the covenant of the league was that all decision of the council was to be taken with unanimity. As the states were divided among groups, it was not possible to deicide matters unanimously. The unanimity principal incorporated with the covenant proved to be detrimental to the working of the league of nations

2) Yet another important defect of the league was that is could not completely prohibit war. The covenant of the league of nations permitted League-Members to resort to war under certain situations. The covenant provided that the Member-States were firstly under the obligation to settle their disputes through arbitration, judicial settlement or inquiry by the council. The covenant provided that if the problem was not solved through these methods, the Members could resort to war after the lapse of three months. It meant that war was not completely prohibited under the covenant of the league of nations.

3) Non-participation of united states of America to the league of nations was another important weakness of the organization. Hence, league of nations remained an organization limited to European countries only.

4) Another important defect of the league was with regard to the constitutional amendment of the covenant. It provided that if any amendment of the covenant was not acceptable to a Member-State, it would cease to be its member. This provision was fatal to the organization, as many member-state ceased to be members of the league of nations.

5) There was provision under the covenant of the league for the withdrawal of membership. They could withdraw from the league after two years notice. This provision provides fatal to the league. In the beginning, there were sixty-two members, but in due course of time, the membership of the league was reduced to thirty-two only.

6) The council of the league was not so competent as to settle amicably the disputes among the members.

7) The League of nations could not check big powers from attacking and exploiting small states.

8) The league failed miserably and could not perform its primary functions of maintaining international peace and security which one of the foremost functions and objects of the league of nations.


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