Human Rights are independent and have been existence prior to the participation of Human beings in Society. Human Rights are Independent of the Legal system for their existence. Human Rights are said to be derived from Natural Law and therefore they do not depend for their validity on any authority. 


      The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 has provided for civil and Political Rights under Article 2 to 21. Are as follows :


Article 2

       Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration(Universal Declaration of Human Rights), without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or another opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Article 3

            Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 4

            No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Article 5

             No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 6

              Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 7

              All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.


Article 8

              Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

Article 9

               No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

Article 10

                Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

Article 11

                Everyone charged with a penal offense has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to the law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defense. No one shall be held guilty of any penal offense on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offense, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offense was committed.

Article 12

              No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 13

             Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

Article 14


             Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 15

       Everyone has the right to a nationality. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

Article 16

            Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

Article 17

              Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

Article 18

            Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

Article 19

           Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

Article 20

          Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

Article 21

          Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. Everyone has the right to equal access to public service in his country.
The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.


See also.... 

'Solidarity rights' under Universal Declaration of Human Rights

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