Freedom of speech and expression article 19 (1) (a) and 19 (2) 

freedom of speech and expression is indispensable in a democracy.
In Romesh Thapar vs State of Madras,  Patanjali Shastri J., rightly observed that -

'Freedom speech and of the press lay at the foundation of all democratic organisations, for without free political discussion no public education, no essential for the proper functioning of the process of popular government is possible.'

Article 19 (1) (a)  says that all citizens shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression. But this right is subject to limitations imposed under article 19 (2) which Empowers the state to put reasonable restrictions on the following grounds, for examples - security of the state, friendly relation with foreign states, public order, decency and morality,  contempt of court, defamation incitement to offence and integrity and sovereignty of India.




Meaning and scope -

               freedom of speech and expression means the right to express ones own convictions and opinions freely by words of mouth, writing, printing,  pictures or any other mode. It thus includes the expression of one's ideas  through any communicable medium or visible representation,  such as gesture, signs and the like.

              The expression connotes also Publication and thus the freedom of the press is included in this category. Free propagation of Ideas is the necessary objective and this may be done on the platform or through the press.  The freedom of propagation of Ideas is secured by freedom of circulation. Liberty of circulation is essential to that freedom as the liberty of Publication. Indeed, without circulation the publication would be of little value.

               The freedom of speech and expression includes liberty to propagate not one's views only. It also includes the right to propagate or  publish the views of other people, otherwise this freedom is not include the freedom of the press.


Freedom of expression has four broad special purpose to serve :

1) It helps an individual, to attain self-fulfillment; 

2) It assist in the discovery of truth.

3)  It strengths the capacity of an individual in participating in decision making and

4) It provides a mechanism by which it would be possible to establish a reasonable balance between stability and social change.

             All members of society should be able to form their own beliefs and communicate them freely to others.

            In sum ,  the fundamental principle involved here is the People's right to know. freedom of speech and expression should therefore, receive generous support from all those who believe in the participation of people in the administration. It is on account of this special interest which society has in the freedom of speech and expression that the approach of government should be more cautious while  levying taxes on matter of concerning newspaper industry than while levying taxes on other matters.

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