Fundamental duties --
              The new part IV-A which consists of only one Article 51-A was added to the constitution by the 42nd Amendment, 1976. This Article for the first time specifies a code of ten fundamental duties for citizens. Article 51-A says that it shall be the duty of every citizen of India --
      
      (A) to abide by constitution and respect its ideal and institutions, the National Flag and National Anthem.

     (B) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;

     (C) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of india;

    (D) to defend the country  and render national service when called upon to do so;

    (E) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of the India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;

   (F) to value and preserve the right heritage of our composite culture;

  (G) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creature;

   (H) to develop the scientific temper, humansm and the spirit of inquiry and reform;

   (I) to  safeguard public property and to abjure violence;

   (J) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievements.
                  
                    The constitution (86th Amendment) Act, 2002 has added a new clause (k) to Article 51-A which provides "who is parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to each child or as the case be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years."

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