Among the great population of one 125 crore, 80 % are Hindus and the remaining 20 % are Minorities The Indian Constitution gives more than sufficient rights and protection to the Minorities.     

               Article 14 of the Indian Constitution grants to every person equality before law, that the State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of law within the territories of India. Article 15 Prohibits discrimination on ground of religion, race , caste, sex or place of birth. The general mandates of Article 14 and 15 of the Indian Constitution completely protect the Rights of the Minorities.

              Article 25 provides freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion to all including the minorities. This is an absolute right granted to all persons to whatever community, minority or majority they might be or may belong to, except a few restrictions providing for social welfare and reform.

               Article 26 provides for freedom to manage religious affairs of all majority as well as minority communities and their members, but subject to public order, morality, and health - (a) to establish and maintain Institutions for religious and charitable purposes, to manage their own affairs in matters of religion, to own and acquire movable and immovable property, and to administer such property in accordance with law.

              Article 27 provides a special protection to minorities relating to freedom as to payment for taxes for promotion of any particular religion, that no person shall be compelled to pay any taxes, the process of which are specifically appropriated in payment of expenses in the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious domination.


Cultural and Educational Rights 

Article 29 of Indian Constitution guarantees certain protection to minorities. The citizens having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same. Further no citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on Grounds only on religion, race, cast language or any of them.

        Article 29 runs as follows : Protection of interests of minorities.

           (1) Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same.

           (2) No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them.


Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.

             Article 30 of the Indian constitution deals with right of minorities (whether based on religion or language) to establish and administer educational institutions. The amount determined under such law for the acquisition of such property would not restrict any right guarantee against that clause. Also while granting aid, the State shall not discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of minority.


           Article 30  (1) All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice

(2) In making any law providing for the compulsory acquisition of any property of an educational institution established and administered by a minority, referred to in clause (1), the State shall ensure that the amount fixed by or determined under such law for the acquisition of such property is such as would not restrict or abrogate the right guaranteed under that clause.


(3) The State shall not, in granting aid to educational institutions, discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority, whether based on religion or language.

Religious freedom guaranteed under the Constitution of India (Article 25 to 28 ).


See also 

1) Difference between Nationality and Citizenship

2) What is religion under the constitution of India ?

3) Subsidiary Sources of International Law

4) Meaning, Definition and Types of International Treaties

5) Rights of Minorities to establish and manage educational institutions under the Constitution of India

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