The concept of Citizenship is very important. A citizenship is a legal status acquired by a person. The Indian Constitution Confers Indian citizens with an entitlement to enjoy civil and political rights. Though India is a Federation having two levels of Government, ( Central Govt and State Govt) there is only one citizenship. e.g. the Indian Citizenship and no separate State citizenship. Article 5 to 11 of the Constitution deals with who are citizens of India at the Commencement of the Indian Constitution.

Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution (Article 5) :


      

      According to Article 5.of the Indian Constitution, every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and -

        (a) who was born in the territory of India; or

       (b) either of whose parents was born in the territory of India; or

       (c) who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less than five years immediately preceding such commencement, shall be a citizen of India.

Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan (Art.6) :

            Notwithstanding anything in article 5, a person who has migrated to the territory of India from the territory now included in Pakistan shall be deemed to be a citizen of India at the commencement of this Constitution if-

       (a) he or either of his parents or any of his grandparents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted); and

      (b) (i) in the case where such person has so migrated before the nineteenth day of July, 1948, he has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India since the date of his migration, or

           (ii) in the case where such person has so migrated on or after the nineteenth day of July, 1948, he has been registered as a citizen of India by an officer appointed in that behalf by the Government of the Dominion of India on an application made by him therefor to such officer before the commencement of this Constitution in the form and manner prescribed by that Government: Provided that no person shall be so registered unless he has been resident in the territory of India for at least six months immediately preceding the date of his application.

Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan (Article 7) :

        Notwithstanding anything in articles 5 and 6, a person who has after the first day of March, 1947, migrated from the territory of India to the territory now included in Pakistan shall not be deemed to be a citizen of India:

        Provided that nothing in this article shall apply to a person who, after having so migrated to the territory now included in Pakistan, has returned to the territory of India under a permit for resettlement or permanent return issued by or under the authority of any law and every such person shall for the purposes of clause (b) of article 6 be deemed to have migrated to the territory of India after the nineteenth day of July, 1948.


 Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India (Article 8) : 

        Notwithstanding anything in article 5, any person who or either of whose parents or any of whose grandparents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted), and who is ordinarily residing in any country outside India as so defined shall be deemed to be a citizen of India if he has been registered as a citizen of India by the diplomatic or consular representative of India in the country where he is for the time being residing on an application made by him therefor to such diplomatic or consular representative, whether before or after the commencement of this Constitution, in the form and manner prescribed by the Government of the Dominion of India or the Government of India.

Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens (Article 9) :

      No person shall be a citizen of India by virtue of article 5, or be deemed to be a citizen of India by virtue of article 6 or article 8, if he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of any foreign State.


Continuance of the rights of citizenship (Article 10)

      Every person who is or is deemed to be a citizen of India under any of the foregoing provisions of this Part shall, subject to the provisions of any law that may be made by Parliament, continue to be such citizen.

Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law (Article 11)

    Nothing in the foregoing provisions of this Part shall derogate from the power of Parliament to make any provision with respect to the acquisition and termination of citizenship and all other matters relating to citizenship.

See also.... 

1) Distinction / Difference between Nationality and Citizenship

2) Modes of Acquiring Citizenship under the Citizenship Act, 1955

3) Modes of Loss of Nationality

4) Who is a citizen of India ?

5) Effects of Proclamation of Emergency Emergency

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