1) Introduction - 

       
            The Draft of declaration sent by Economic and Social Council was adopted on 10th December 1948 by General Assembly through resolution known as "Universal Declaration of Human Rights". This declaration dealt with Civil and political and also social, economic rights. The declaration set for the International community a common standard of achievement.  It recognized the inherent dignity and the equal and inalienable rights of all people in all Nations. The Human Rights mentioned in the declaration are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated.  It is the duty of the State regardless of its social, political and economic systems to promote and protect human rights.


2) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) -


          The first stage of the Bill on Human Right was completed on the passing of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the General Assembly of the United Nation on 10th December 1948. But however,  it was a simple resolution of the general assembly imposing no binding obligation on the member states to carry out its provisions nor it provided for the enforcement of its provisions. It is merely a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all Nations.

            The Declarations sets a new International Standard. For the first time in history, the representative of most governments on earth have agreed that certain rights belong to no one Nation or group, but every human being or a human being.  United Nations have proclaimed that people have these rights not because they are Buddhists, Arabs, Swedes, Christians, Eskimos, Hottentots or South sea Islanders but because they are human beings. What a declaration really says is that each person should be considered on his/her merits and all deserve a chance to live a full and happy life.
      The Preamble proclaims The Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all people and for all Nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this in mind to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures and observance, both among the peoples of territories and their jurisdiction.
     



          (a) Civil and Political Rights under Article 1 to Article 21 : 


                 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), 1948 Article 1 to Article 21 provide for Civil and Political Rights which includes right to life, liberty, security of person. Right to equality, Equality before law, Right to freedom of movement and residence, right to freedom of thought conscience and religion, right to freedom of opinion and expression, right to property, right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association etc. See in detail...Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948, Civil and Political Rights under Article 1 to Article 21
       


             (b) Economic, Social and Cultural Rights under Article 22 to Article 27 : 


       Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), 1948 Article 22 to Article 27 provide for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights which Include the Right to Work, the Right to Social Security, the Right to Protection Against Unemployment, the Right against slavery and exploitation, the Right to Good Living, the Right to Education and the Right to health services. See in detail... Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights under Article 22 to Article 27 




See also

Universal Declaration of Human Rights and The Constitution of India

Human Rights of Children and International Instruments to Protect their Rights

Constitution Powers and Functions of National Human Rights Commission (NHRC)

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